Fish        27 ноября 2018        174         0

Poisonous fishes. Descriptions, features and names of poisonous fishes

Poisonous fishes in the world near 600-from types. From them 350 active. The device with toxin is given that from the birth. Other fishes again poisonous. Toxicity of those is connected with food. Using certain fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, secondary types accumulate their poison in certain bodies or all body.

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Initially poisonous fishes

Poisonous fishes of category possess glands producing toxin. Poison gets to bodies of the victims through a sting, a puncture special thorns or beams of fins. Often attacks are directed on offenders. That is, evolutionarily fishes started producing poison for protection.

Sea dragons

Poisonous species of fish include 9 of their names. All live in waters of a temperate climatic zone and don’t exceed in length of 45 centimeters. Dragons treat the okuneobrazny.

Are filled with poison at dragons a thorn on a branchiate cover and an axis of a back fin. Toxin is difficult protein. It breaks work of blood and nervous systems. Poison of snakes has the same effect. By the nature it is similar to toxin of sea dragons.

Their poison isn’t deadly to people, however causes severe pain, burning, results in puffiness of fabrics. Meat of dragons edible, is considered a delicacy.

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Whelps poisonous representatives of the Black Sea

        Stingray

These poisonous fishes of the sea are slopes, that is possess the flattened and large chest fins. They have a rhombus form. The tail of a slope is always deprived of a fin, but often has an acerate outgrowth. To them also attack hvostokola. They, as well as other slopes, are the close relatives of sharks. Respectively, hvostokola have no skeleton. Bones are replaced with cartilages.

Hvostokolov in the seas of 80 types. Their toxicity differs. The strongest poison the sinepyatnisty slope possesses.

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The blue-spotted slope is the most poisonous of the stingray

One percent of the people pricked with it perish. Number of victims in a year equally to thousands. On the coasts of North America, for example, each 12 months fix at least 7 hundred cases of attack of hvostokol. Their poison has neyrotropny effect, striking nervous system. Toxin causes instant, burning pain

Among hvostokol there are fresh-water. One of types lives, for example, in Amazon. The Indians living on its coast since ancient times do of thorns of fishes the poisoned tips of arrows, daggers, a spear.

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Sea ashkeys

Treat family the skorpenovykh. Externally ashkeys are distinguished by the increased chest fins. They come for anal, reminding wings. Still ashkeys differ in the expressed needles in a back fin. Thorns are and on the head of fishes. In each needle — poison. However having cleaned thorns, ashkeys, as well as other the skorpenovykh, it is possible to eat.

Effective appearance of ashkeys — a reason for their aquarian contents. Also their small sizes allow to admire fishes of the house. It is almost possible to choose from 20 types of ashkeys. The general number the skorpenovykh of types — 100. Ashkeys in it — one of childbirth.

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Despite the poisonousness of the capefish, they are often wound up in aquariums because of their spectacular appearance.

The most poisonous fish among ashkeys — a borodavchatka. Otherwise it is called a stone. The name is connected with masking of a borodavchatka under sea corals, sponges. Fish is speckled by outgrowths, hillocks, thorns. The last are poisonous. Toxin leads to paralysis, but there is an antidote.

If that isn’t present near at hand, the prick place is heated as much as possible, for example, lowering in hot water or substituting under the hair dryer. It kills pain, partially destroying proteinaceous structure of poison.

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Wart or fish stone master disguise

Groupers

It is a genus of fishes. In it 110 species of fish. All treat the skorpenovy. As well as perches, fishes differ in shipasty back fins. Axes in them 13 — 15. Thorns are and on branchiate covers. In prickles — poison.

At a prick it gets to a wound together with slime with which gills and fins of a perch are covered. Toxin is carried on lymphatic system, causing lymphadenitis. This increase in lymph nodes. Such is reaction of immune system to poison.

In a prick place grouper thorns pain, hypostasis quickly develop. However toxin of fish is unstable, collapses alkalis, an ultraviolet and when heating. Poison of perches from the Barents Sea is especially weak. The Pacific individuals are most toxic. If poison is injected a little into one person, respiratory standstill is possible.

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Sea bass    

Katran

This is the poisonous representative of sharks. The predator about 30 kilograms weighs, in length doesn’t exceed 2,2 meters. Meets katran in Atlantic, and also it is accepted in poisonous fishes of the Black Sea.

Toxin of a katran is heterogeneous, that is non-uniform, protein. It is produced by glands of the thorn located before a back fin. The prick conducts to sharp pain, reddening, burns. The itch remains some hours. The burn descends couple of days.

Katran represents family of prickly sharks. Virulence of other types isn’t proved, but it is supposed. It is difficult to study many prickly sharks. The black look, for example, deep, meets in the Atlantic Ocean.

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Katran is the only representative of sharks living in the Black Sea

Arab surgeon

Represents family the hirurgovykh. It belongs to group the okuneobraznykh. Therefore poison of fish is similar to toxin of groupers, collapses under the influence of heat. However appearance of the surgeon is far from shape of relatives.

The body of fish is strongly flattened from sides, high. The tail fin of the surgeon has a half moon form. Coloring differs depending on a look. Most of surgeons motley, with bright strips and spots.

In family hirurgovykh of 80 species of fish. At everyone under and over a tail sharp thorns settle down. They remind scalpels. The name of fishes is connected with it. They seldom exceed in length of 40 centimeters that allows to support animals in an aquarium.

The Arab surgeon — the most aggressive representative of family, enters in poisonous fishes of the Red Sea. There the animal quite often attacks divers, scuba divers.

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Surgeons named fish because of the abdominal fin resembling a scalpel

Again poisonous fishes

Again poisonous fishes accumulate saxitoxin. It not protein, but the alkaloid relating to purinovy connections. Poison contain a plankton dinoflagellit also many mollusks. They as it is supposed, receive toxin from monocelled seaweed, and those is from water, accumulating substance under certain conditions.

Blaasop

This family of fishes. His most poisonous representative — a dog. The alternative name — the fugue. Poisonous fish differs in the truncated body, a back and the wide head wide, flat from above with a klyuvoobrazny mouth.

In it there are 4 plates of the teeth which grew together between themselves. Them the fugue splits armors of crabs and a sink of mollusks. Eating the last, fish receives toxin. It is deadly, collects in a liver of a dog.

Despite virulence, the fugue eat. Training of fish, in particular, removal of a liver, caviar, skin is necessary. They are impregnated with poison. The dish is popular in Japan with what some excesses are connected.

So, in Gamagori, for example, the realization case by one of local supermarkets of 5 packings with integral fish is recorded. The liver and calves weren’t removed. It is enough toxin in each fish that 30 people died.

The photo of poisonous fishes often presents them in the exaggerated form. The dog becomes similar to a sphere at the time of a fright. The fugue involves water or air, depending on the stay environment. The increase in sizes has to frighten off predators. With people «focus» seldom takes place.

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At the time of fright puffer swells, exposing spikes

Sea eels

These poisonous fishes of the ocean choose tropical waters, reaching nearly 3 meters in length there. Sometimes eels eat mollusks which eat peridiniya. These are flagellates. The phenomenon of red inflow is connected with them.

Because of a congestion of crustaceans of water of the ocean become red. Thus many fishes perish, but eels adapted for poison. It is simply postponed in skin, bodies of moray eels.

Poisoning with meat of an eel is fraught with an itch, a sleep of feet, language, diarrhea and the complicated swallowing. Thus in a mouth smack of metal is felt. About 10% which poisoned will paralyze with the subsequent lethal outcome.

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Sea eel

Skumbriyevye

Tunas, mackerel, jack mackerels, horse-mackerel belong to family. All of them are edible. The tuna is considered a delicacy. In poisonous fishes of the world the skumbriyevy «register», being stale. Meat contains a histidine.

It is amino acid. It is a part of many proteins. When fish long lies in heat, the bacteria transforming a histidine in заурин develop. This gistaminopodobny substance. Reaction of an organism to it is similar to a strong allergy.

It is possible to determine the poisoned meat the skumbriyevykh by sharp, burning smack. Having eaten meat, in a few minutes the person starts suffering from a headache. Further, dries up in a mouth, it becomes difficult to swallow, heart begins is speeded up to fight. In the final on skin red strips appear. They itch. Poisoning is followed by a diarrhea.

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Mackerel poison is expressed in the use of food is not fresh fish meat

Sterlet

This red fish is poisonous at the expense of a viziga — a chord from dense fabric. It replaces a backbone of fish. The Viziga reminds a cord. It is composed by a cartilage and connecting fabric. The combination is harmless, so far fish fresh. Moreover, the viziga spoils quicker than sterlet meat. Therefore it is possible to use a cartilage only in the first days after capture of fish.

Can spoil a meal not only a vizig, but also the gall bladder of a sterlet which burst during an imboweling. Contents of body impact to meat bitter relish. Diarrhea is possible.

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Sturgeon fish     

Under certain conditions and food poisonous are nearly 300 species of fish. Therefore in medicine there is a term of a siguater. To them designate poisoning with fish. Especially often cases siguater are fixed in coastal areas of the Pacific Ocean and in West Indies.

Periodically such delicacies, as get to the list inedible there: spotty gruper, yellow каранкс, sea crucian, Japanese anchovy, barracuda, horned kuzovka.

Total number of fishes in the world exceeds 20 thousand types. Six hundred poisonous from them seem a little bit. However considering changeability of again toxic fishes and prevalence initially poisonous, you shouldn’t underestimate specific «narrowness» of a class.

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