Insects        16 июля 2017        965         0

Aphid insect. The lifestyle and habitat of aphids

If we classify insect pests and useful, the second will be much greater. Too much in the nature of such parasitic creatures that like to make money at someone else’s expense. It is to such insects aphids belongs.

This tiny insect can bring incredible damage to large plots of various plantings, as well as all houseplants. For many gardeners aphids-a pest that creates an incredible problem, and sometimes global damage.

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These insects are so prolific that their appearance in small quantity for a short time turns green plantation colonies of aphids, get rid of that is not as easy as it may seem to some to be at first glance.

In the unit the Homoptera, which include these insects, there are about 3500 species. Each of them has its own characteristics. What harmful aphids? Her large colonies feed on the SAP of plants, depriving them thus of vital forces between them and spreading virus diseases.

From the parasitism of the aphid plants have significantly slowed growth. If fruit plants, they begin to bear fruit and then stop to give birth. For example, a large number of aphids, which appeared in the Apple orchard, just a month can cause the garden to wither.

The growth of shoots and trees is reduced in 2 times. The aphid itself is not out there where she is, than to profit. This means that a sad end for all living spaces are inevitable. Starting their activities, these small parasitic insects from the first month of spring. And they continue until late autumn.

From the actions of aphids in plants runs out of vitality, they can get a variety of viral diseases transmitted by insects. In addition, plants may experience various abnormalities in development, for example, growths on the root system.

Characteristics and habitat

These insects have a great ability to blend in. Shades takes on the color of plants on which they feed. Green aphids on apples, grapes, house plants, aphids are black in color is observed on cherries, currants and red gooseberries eats the aphid, the insect is yellow with a green tint is parasitic on cucumbers and melons.

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In most cases, the aphid has an oval shape. Sometimes there are these insects in the form of a drop, sphere, egg or ellipse. Size aphids are tiny, but to the naked eye it can still be considered. It reaches a length of up to 0.7 mm. In rare cases, can be found among these giants, with the size of about 7 mm.

This insect is among those who eat plant food. They are equipped with a special proboscis, piercing the plant tissue and pull out all the juice. It’s amazing how quickly they can multiply, this is one of the most important features of the aphid. Insects come in from the porch and without.

In nature, there is an interesting circuit to which it is impossible not to pay attention. Aphids from plant SAP gets important for the development and life of the protein compounds and amino acids. Allocated in the process of recycling these nutrients suspension sticky consistency, which is a favorite food of flies and ants.

Scientists have observed strange facts cooperation aphids with ants, which are trying to protect their nurses from possible trouble. Moreover, the ants carry aphids from one plant to another, and their females even hide in my house from the winter chill and frost. After this observation has to contend not only with aphids but also with their «guardians».

The body of the aphid is not protected by a shell, as in many insects, it is soft and is exposed to outside, aphids can be easily crushed. The insect’s long limbs, but it does not mean that aphids are able to move quickly. She does it slowly.

Wingless insects differ visually from the cruise. At first, the proboscis is longer and thicker. From the winged aphids have two pairs of wings, with which it is easily moved in space.

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Winged aphids have a slightly different rhythm of life from wingless. In the autumn period is the time of oviposition of the winged fertilized females. Eggs are laid not in all places.

The preference of insects giving wild radish, cress, cabbage stalk. Throughout the winter the eggs are in these plants. With the arrival of spring they turn into larvae, which develop and survive at the expense of cell SAP of green space.

Then they molt after aphids reproduce. By the way, they do it without sex differences. As a result, the light appears a large number of insect larvae. Scientists who observed this process, I was horrified. Within one month one female can produce about 10,000 insects.

Wingless aphids leads a virtually sedentary lifestyle. From birth till his last days, they are at the same place. Using their proboscises aphid feeds on plant SAP gets all the important components of life and well developed.

If not the fight and not try to destroy it, it will continue to parasitize, reproduce, and cause harm to vegetation. Moreover, the presence of males it is absolutely not necessary.

Approximately in the middle of summer in the crowd of wingless females begin to appear periodically winged their representatives. They, in turn, without any problems be moved to the new lands of greenery and with great pleasure are improving there.

Winged aphids plays an important role in the continuation of their kind. Because aphids, which is not able to move at a time can exhaust the food supply and it dies. Migratory aphids immediately at the new location just forms huge colonies of such creatures.

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The end of summer is significant for these insects because of them finally appear heterosexual beings, between which the mating occurs. With the parishes of winter frosts the insects die, leaving behind eggs, which with the arrival of spring will be held the same life cycle and die in the winter.

How to determine the appearance of aphids on the plant? If the green areas are gradually beginning to lose its attractive appearance, it is necessary to examine them.

Usually apterous aphids under the leaves of plants. Increased in size of the colony without any hesitation and fear completely cover all the green areas. Leaves after a brief contact with these insects dry out, and after twisting and all die.

All fruit trees are much less bring the harvest. Sometimes their fruit crumble even before its maturation. Shoots and stems of plants bend. In addition, all damaged plants are covered by the sweet secretions of aphids, which gardeners call honeydew dew.

Not eaten honeydew ants causes the plant to infection of sooty fungus. This suggests that the emergence of a large number of ants in the frequent cases indicates that somewhere near the aphid parasite, though not yet seen the fruits of its actions.

The most suitable for these pests, the climate is humid and warm. Only in such conditions it is possible the mass reproduction of aphids. It can be found in many areas, ranging from Europe to Siberia.

The way of life of aphids

Aphids-insect prefers to stay in large colonies. Its favorite habitat on the green leaves and young shoots. Companions throughout their lives are the ants. This tandem brings benefits to both of them. Aphids are protected ant that eats her honey dew.

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It is interesting to observe their communication. The ant approaches the aphid and after a gentle tickling gets a portion of sweet liquid. This droplet is passed along the chain to the house of the ant, which often finds shelter aphids in the winter. Do aphids have enemies from which the ant tries her carefully protected. Ladybugs and lacewing can destroy colonies of aphids.

The types of aphids

Scientists know more than 4,000 species of aphids, about 1,000 of whom lives in Europe. More than half of them fed, not touching the plants. But among them there are those who prefer something one. Leaf gall aphid, for example, is very fond of currants. In a very short time from a «love» plant may die. The distribution of this species is very wide.

To recognize the insect is in the oval shape of the body, yellow or pale green coloration and a couple of transparent wings, if winged aphids. The size of the Gallic aphids about 3 mm. After exposure to insects currant leaves first turn yellow, and then get Burgundy shade and swell.

Steklovidnaya aphids also oval forms. But in color it can be some differences. Aphids can be not only green but also brown and even black with a white chest. All insect covered with wax.

This aphid prefers beets, potatoes, legumes, planting, poppy, Jasmine, sunflowers and viburnum. Transcaucasia, Middle Asia, North America, the main habitat of these pests.

Cucumber (Bacheva) aphid has a slightly elongated body with various shades of green. The limbs and whiskers insect painted in brown color. Most often it occurs on watermelons, melons, pumpkin, cucumber, tobacco, peanuts, beets. Sometimes, this aphid can live on a citrus tree and eucalyptus.

Cabbage aphids are oval and broad forms. Its color fits the color of cabbage leaves, which often can meet the insect. In addition, this aphid likes radish and radish. From throngs of cabbage aphid, the plants die very quickly.

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Grape phylloxera has a body in the shape of an oval with a yellow or brown tint. Not like any other plants besides grapes. Found on the African continent, in some places, Asia, North America and European territory. Carrot aphid prefers only carrots some umbrella plants, from which they quickly die. It is small in size, with an oval body and a light green color.

Green Apple aphids are green and the body in the form of an oval. To distinguish from other types of it can be red or brown head. From this insect suffer Apple orchards, pear, cotoneaster, hawthorn, quince.

The potato aphid is different in red. Winged aphids with a green tint, brown limbs, and a mustache. Do it all garden plants and those that are grown in the greenhouse and in the room.

The peach aphids are round, gray-brown in color, with orange legs and black spots at the top. Habitat – the Crimea. Loves nut and fruit plantations, which brings incredible damage and puts diseases of the fungus.

Mealy aphids are oval-shaped cream-colored. Found on indoor plants in greenhouses, grapes and citrus. Colonies of aphids on these plants leads to their death. Home aphids is white, red, green, and black. Feed on any plants from which they are initially dry, and then altogether perish.

White aphids are familiar to fans of indoor plants. Her body has a transparent color. The appearance of this pest in one room the flower threatens all the plants in the apartment. Struggle with white aphids immediately.

What to do if there were aphids on the leaves?

For many gardeners and flower lovers this is one of the most pressing issues. It is only initially and people who are not faced with this problem, it may seem that there is nothing difficult.

In principle, for the aphid pest is detrimental regular soap solution. The problem arises because of the large number of aphids, the plant changes its external signs.

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The insect sucks out all the juice, making the sheets twist into a tube. Here in these twisted leaves and finds refuge aphids. So deal with it you need even before blooming leaves on the trees.

It is better to treat them in the spring as soon as you notice swelling of the kidneys. Declaring war on the aphid, one needs not forget about the ants and also to apply the products from them.

Get rid of ants is not difficult. This is done with padding that is wrapped up in the trunk of the tree. Sintepon is first necessary to treat the chemical preparation against ants. Currently there is a large range of such products. Commonly used is considered the «Anteater».

Some gardeners try to get rid of aphids by mechanical means. They remove it with his hands, jets of water under high pressure. The only way to get rid of pests that are on low-growing plants.

You can take care of that on the site with a large number of aphids, those who can easy to deal with it. These include ladybugs, some species of wasps, hoverflies, lacewing. For many birds the aphid acts as a delicacy. They can attract to birdhouses and special feeders for birds.

Aphids negatively reacts to the aromas of certain plants. Can around the site to plant mint, marigolds and aphids slowly begins to get off this site. Not this insect likes the smell of garlic, coriander, fennel, Basil.

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There are a lot of chemicals, the use of which gives a positive result in the fight against aphids. From them it is possible to allocate such funds from the aphids as «Fitoverm», «Ectopic», «Jaguar». Each of these drugs has its own spectrum of action and instructions for use.

Food aphids

For normal existence and development of the aphid requires amino acids that exist in plants. It is an omnivorous insect not shrink from any vegetation. However many of them have their own preferences in food. For example, grape aphids not visit the Apple orchards and eat their vegetation. Conversely, not found in nature Apple aphids, sitting on the grapes.

The reproduction and lifespan of aphids

There are aphids, which deals with the deposition of eggs. But there are such insects are called viviparous. Parthenogenesis is inherent in many species of these insect pests. Some of the aphids come into the light with wings and heterosexual. Others, on the contrary.

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A big role in procreation play aphids winged individuals, which does not allow a death like his hunger, and move into new territory in search of food for themselves.

Scientists noticed that the winged aphid often appears in the case if, for example, on the plot there is a large amount of ladybugs. The whole process is very complicated. But in short try to explain it all is as follows.

Ladybug finds its victim and eats it. As a result, the aphids produced from a specific aromatic substance, which collects all aphids in the colony. From this comes the panic. In such a panic give birth to more aphids with wings. This insect is not long-lived. Live louse can, several days and months. With the onset of frost, it all dies. In addition to that which gave shelter to the ants squad.

Preventive measures against aphids

The fight against aphids – it is not easy. To begin it is best to immediately after first noticed the signs of the appearance of these insects.

It is very important in the fall to clean the garden, the garden of all unnecessary remnants of plants. All of them better to be burning. This will prevent the deposition of eggs of the aphids and the emergence of insects with the arrival of spring.

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Definitely need to spray all the plants, attacked by aphids mineral oil products. For this event given very little time. It must be done literally no more than 3 days. You cannot allow insect larvae to be born and to be taken for the destruction of plants by sucking their juices.

The treatment must be repeated after 14-21 days. Entire growing period must be accompanied by a going-over plants. Aphids have discovered without delay treated with insecticides.

Good job with the aphids a solution of soap, ash, and soap is alkaline. It is important to deal with these insects during the fruiting of plants. All chemicals can get into the fruit.

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